Click here to see the full version of our movie TRAJECTORY...
Despite our 2011 achievements in California as recorded in the video above, we've continued to push the boundaries of EMC Volcanics. Today, workability is maintained and slag-like performance is delivered consistently — both in terms of the level of substitution and strength-gain...
We delivered our first outstanding results using EMC Volcanics well-over a decade ago, leading to the first large-scale demonstration pour in 2011 in California (see above). Further refinements would then lead to our patent being filed, which was then granted in 2014. It's now Worldwide...
As recent studies have confirmed elsewhere, the typical maximum OPC replacement using Natural Pozzolans (volcanic materials) is at most only 20% (PDF here). In contrast? We're talking 70%!
After all, the Romans invented the words 'cement' and 'concrete'. More than 2000-yrs' ago, it was demonstrated that concrete made with natural pozzolans deliver exceptional durability. For example, Rome's Pantheon is still standing after almost 2000-yrs — and with still the largest non-reinforced dome in the world (here). Then there's Hagia Sophia (here), which has not only withstood mutiple earthquakes, but for nearly 1000-yrs was the largest church in the entirety of Christendom and among the first to employ a fully pendentive dome. As stated in a monograph elsewhere (PDF here):
"Pozzolanic mortars are cementitious materials first used by the Greeks around 1500 BC ... Hydraulic mortars are exceptionally durable to long-term static (structural) and dynamic (earthquake) stresses, as evidenced by the durability of various monuments utilizing these materials (e.g., Hagia Sophia in Istanbul, Turkey, and the medieval castle in Rhodes, Greece). Their durability was related to their hydraulicity and the nature of hydration products. In addition, hydraulic mortars are more resistant to sulfate attack compared to modern Portland cement, which has a limited life of approximately 70 years in marine and heavily polluted atmospheres."
This indisputable superlative is exploited by EMC Volcanics...
The simple rule of thumb? The more Portland cement is replaced with Natural Pozzolans, the more the concrete's durability is enhanced. This is a well-observed phenomenon.
Why? Porosity is transformed into hard and impermeable (relatively non-reactive) compounds, rather than the porous, soft and relatively reactive chalk produced using Portland cement. Using EMC Volcanics increases the replacement ratio — therefore increasing this effect.
For example, the resistance of Hagia Sophia to earthquakes through the millenia has been attributed to the pozzolanic nature of the mortar used in its construction (PDF here):
"Structural studies to determine the earthquake worthiness of Hagia Sophia in Istanbul have proved that the monument’s static and dynamic behavior depends very strongly on the mechanical, chemical and microstructural properties of the mortars and bricks used for the masonry...allowing the structure to absorb energy without affecting irreversibly its material properties. The determination of the mortar properties indicated that they are of considerable mechanical strength and longevity. The dated mortar samples examined proved to be resistant to continuous stresses and strains due to the presence of the amorphous hydraulic formations."
The "step-change" between the EMC method vs. orthodox grinding methods has been proven well beyond doubt. In independent tests conducted in 2021 by a major OPC producer, EMCs showed an additional 35% strength gain over and above the same raw material like-for-like treated using only orthodox grinding methods instead ... even at the high water doses as mandated in EN 196-1.
Paradox? What paradox? Having solved workability doesn't just mean EMC Volcanics can be used in large-scale projects. No! For us, it means we've solved the paradox that acts as the self-limiting characteristic that has always plagued volcanics. Simply put: it means we've solved the nascent water demand issue.
This is why we've focused on workability for over 25 years: Water dosage can be reduced without clogging. And upon reducing the water dose—made possible precisely because EMC Technology solves the workability issues associated historically with volcanics—the results are phenomenal!
No complicating arithmetic is needed. EMC Volcanics meet the productivity needs of today's construction industry even at OPC replacement levels >50%, yet without having to overdose the total cement in the concrete mix. On a strictly 1-to-1 basis by mass.
It's just a straight swap-out. We call this feature "parity". It means no 'cheating' either (for example, by making-up for a lack of strength-development by increasing the overall total cement dosage). Yay!
Are we sure of the enhanced workability even at higher cement doses? Yes. Independent tests at 70% OPC replacement set out below are rated at a higher 350 kg/m3 (590 lbs/cu·yd) total cement in the concrete — which is only the average cementitious content used by the industry anyhow.
You need only ask how much strength development does the project need. As tests conducted by BASF show, EMC Volcanics can swap-out the majority of the OPC and still hit 96 MPa / 14,000 psi in 28 days. What? Yes, that's right: at a total cement dose of 365 kg/m3 (564lbs/cu·yd), EMCs even hit 62 MPa (9,000) psi after just 7 incredible days. So, we'll say that again: 7 incredible days! Yes?
95% of the European ready-mix market is served by strength-class C35 or less. That's right, at least according to correspondence we've exchanged with the UK's Mineral Products Association. Hence, there's the scope to reduce the total cement dose to 275 kg/m3 for that 95% market-segment.
Super A++ CO2-ratings. The good news? EMC Volcanics can swap-out 70% OPC at 275 kg/m3 total cement dosage and make that C35 strength-class without infringing parity. And because EMCs comprise zero CO2 process-emissions, this leads to a superb CO2-rating based on I.C.E. thresholds, with the energy-need slashed. So, why's that important? Visit our ratings page here to learn more...
Above is a photo showing a bridge on IH-10 Texas being made from EMCs
EMC Technology turns Globally abundant volcanics into a high-performance zero-carbon cement that exceeds today's performance standards and durability. Our history shows there are no limits!
Above is a 2021 photo showing the EMC installation at Houston Bayport...
EMC Technology has been used for years with Fly Ash as the raw-material, with millions cubic meters of concrete poured in infrastructure projects in the United States ... including in the most demanding salt-environments.
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