Portland Cement (OPC) is the largest industrial CO2 emitter on the planet
Over 3 billion tonnes CO2 (7-8% of global CO2) are emitted annually from thermal energy input of 1450 deg. C (generally coal), the natural release of CO2 from the limestone raw-material and other minor contributing activities.
The Financial Times reported that if building materials were a country, it would be the third largest emitter, behind China and the USA
The International Energy Agency's May 2019 report shows that only by way of massive substitution of the Portland cement in concrete by other cementitious materials is there any hope for reaching zero cement emissions by 2050.
The zero emissions EMC process can contribute c. 70% reduction in cement emissions which, per the IEA findings gives visibility to zero emissions by 2050.
In a low energy , two step mechanical process, supplemental cementitious materials, e.g. fly ash/volcanic ash, steel slag, or combinations thereof (“SCMs”), are processed in specially-configured rotating and vibrating ball mills where:
NOTE: The first step is about particle size, the second step is about mechanical surface activation, thus these are two completely different forms of processing.
Energy consumption is c. 100kWh/tonne vs. 1300 kWh/tonne for OPC
The following Ordinary Portland cement (OPC) replacement opportunities are achieved:
Natural (volcanic) pozzolans ~70%
Fly ash ~80%