In a low energy, two step mechanical process, supplemental cementitious materials, e.g. fly ash/volcanic ash, steel slag, or combinations thereof (“SCMs”), are processed in specially-configured rotating and vibrating ball mills where:
The result is significantly increased amorphization and thus chemical reactivity of the powder particles.
NOTE: The first step is about particle size, the second step is about mechanical surface activation, thus these are two completely different forms of processing.
The following Ordinary Portland cement (OPC) replacement opportunities are achieved:
Natural (volcanic) pozzolans ~70% Fly ash ~80% Slag ~95%
Volcanic ash has been used as a cementitious material since the Romans. The Pantheon in Rome is a free standing dome made of 2000 year old concrete which is immaculate to this day.
There are around 70 trillion tonnes of volcanic ash deposited from large eruptions, distributed globally
Volcanic ash is easy to quarry, with a soft, easy to grind structure
Unlike the Romans, modern builders do not have the months required for natural pozzolanic cement to set.
Time pressure and modern methods such as slip-forming require modern concrete mixes to develop high strength in days, not months.